In 1965, a good 75 years after the first electronic fire-alarm system was invented, Duane D. Pearsall created a home version that was affordable and powered by a single battery.

References to some articles and publications 

  1. "America Burning: The Report of the National Commission on Fire Prevention and Control", U.S. Government Printing Office, 1973.
  1.  "Duane Pearsall, inventor of smoke detector, dies in Denver". Summit Daily. Summit County, Colorado: Swift Communications, Inc. 15 April 2010

  2. "Duane Pearsall, smoke-detector pioneer, dies at 88". Denver Business Journal. Denver, Colorado: American City Business Journals. 15 April 2010

  3. "Home smoke detector inventor dies". University of Denver Magazine. Denver, Colorado. 5 May 2010

  4. "How to Protect Your Home From Thieves". Popular Mechanics. Hearst Magazines. 157 (1): 155. January 1982

  5. Lucht, David A. (1 March 2013). "Where's There's Smoke". NFPA Journal. National Fire Protection Association.

  6. Lucht, David A., "Legal Requirements for Fire Alarms in Ohio Dwellings," Fire Journal, NFPA, March, 1972.

  7. Lucht, David A., "The Most Important Technological Breakthrough of the 20th Century," Fire Protection Engineering, January 2015.

  8. "NRC: Fact Sheet on Smoke Detectors". United States Nuclear Regulation Commission. 4 September 2013

  9. Ha, Peter (25 October 2010). "Smoke Detector". Time Magazine. No. ALL-TIME 100 Gadgets. Time, Inc. p. 1

  10.  Wallis, Ian (1 November 2013). 50 Best Business Ideas That Changed the World. Jaico Publishing House. ISBN 9788184952841

  11.  Voluntary Standards and Accreditation Act of 1977, Act No. S. 825 of 1 March 1977 (in English).

  12. "Gordon Library:Recipient Profiles - WPI" Worcester Polytechnic Institute. 1 April 2004. Retrieved 11 June 2014.

  13. Duane Pearsall Collection at DigitalWPI
  14. Blackwell, Lyman L., "Aerosol Detection Device," United States Patent 4093886A, July 6, 1976.

  15. Blackwell, Lyman L. & Staby, Paul A., "Self-Monitoring Battery Operated Circuit," United States Patent 3778800, April 9, 1971.

  16. Lucht, David A., “The Most Important Fire Protection Breakthrough in the 20th Century” SFPE, April 24, 2012.

  17. Craig Beyler, David Lucht , Margaret McNamee , Peter Johnson and Chris Dubay, "The affordable home smoke alarm, Lyman Blackwell- 2015 DiNenno Prize winner" Fire Science Reviews


  1. Fitzgerald, Paul, Mawhinney, John, Slye, Orville, Water-Based Fire Suppression, History of Fire Protection Engineering, (J. Kenneth Richardson, Editor), SFPE/NFPA, 2003.

  2. Belanger, R., D.W. Buckley, and J.B. Swenson. Environmental Assessment of Ionization Chamber Smoke Detectors Containing Am-241. Science Applications Inc., November 1979.

  3. Bukowski, Richard W., and G.W. Mulhol-land. Smoke Detector Design and Smoke Properties. National Bureau of Standards, National Engineering Laboratory, Center for Fire Research, 1978.


Andrews, Edmund L. "Central System for Smoke Detection." The New York Times, February 1, 1993, p. D2.

"Sounds Like Fire." Discover, May 1994, p. 16

"Listening for Hidden Fires." Science News, July 24, 1993, p. 63.

"Smoke Detectors: Essential for Safety." Consumer Reports, May 1994, pp. 336-39.


Fire Safety Journal

Structural Fire Engineering

Journal of Fire Science

Fire Journal


American Society of Safety Engineers - ASSE, America's oldest professional safety organization, was founded six months after the Triangle fire. Its "Century of Safety" site provides information on the fire and the events leading to the establishment of the society.

Research areas:

Advanced fire suppression

Building fire safety

Detection, alarm and smoke control

Explosion protection

Failure analysis

Fire Dynamics

Raise Awareness

Fire Safety for Public

FPE as a discipline

Fire Behavior

Fire Safety Systems

Fire Research and Safety Act 1968

Websites: --- Simplex History